What Is Hyperthyroidism ?
This is a situation where the thyroid found in front of the neck, produces too much of tetraiodothyronine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), it can be in excess of one of the hormones or in excess of both. These two hormones are the main hormones that regulates how the body cells utilizes energy. Early detection of overactive thyroid can help in the better treatment and prevention of complications.
- Graves’s disease : it happens to be the main cause of hyperthyroidism. This is an autoimmune disorder, it makes the antibodies in the body to stimulate the thyroid gland to produce the hormones in excess. Studies have shown that Graves’ disease occur mostly in women and it has some genetic link ups which suggest heredity.
- Large amount of iodine can also cause hyperthyroidism.
- Inflammation of the thyroid gland (thyroiditis) can cause T3 and T4 to leak out of the gland.
- Excess intake of tetraiodothyronine through diet or medication can also cause hyperthyroidism.
- Tumors of the thyroid gland and pituitary gland, ovaries and testes can cause hyperthyroidism.
SYMPTOMS OF HYPERTHYROIDISM
- Hypermetabolic state: This is a situation where the metabolic rate is in excess. When in this state, there may be high blood pressure, increased heartbeat rate, sweating, frequent bowl movements, irregular menstruation and weight loss.
- Other symptoms may be one of these :
Nervousness, Restlessness, Weakness, Itching, Hair loss, Nausea and vomiting, Sleeping disorders, High appetite Enlargement of Breast in men,
However, these symptoms below requires quick response to action by a medical personnel nonce noticed as delay can complicate the situation.
They include :
Atrial fibrillation; this is a very dangerous arrhythmia that if not attended to very quickly, can lead to stroke or heart failure.
Others include Dizziness, Shortness of breath, loss of consciousness, weakness and thinness of the bones.
In some health facilities, some doctors do diagnose hyperthyroidism by physically examining the patient and be looking out for weight loss, rapid pulse, high blood pressure, colour of the eyes, and enlarged thyroid gland.
Other tests as Cholesterol tests, the level of T4 and T3 in the blood, Thyroid stimulating hormone test, Triglyceride test, Thyroid scan, Ultrasound and CT or MRI scans can be used to detect hyperthyroidism.
MEDICATION : There are some drugs that can be used to stop the thyroid from producing hormones. These drugs are being used for treating Hyperthyroidism.
RADIOACTIVE IODINE : This treatment is used to kill those cells that produce hormones. However, this is not without side effects. The side effects include dry eyes, dry mouth, sore throat, and loss of taste.
SURGERY: This where the thyroid gland may be remove through surgery. The patient will then have to depend on thyroid hormone supplements to avert a situation of under produced or no hormone. This situation is referred to as Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid).
Lastly , good diet that contains more of calcium and sodium are also important . it aids in preventing hyperthyroidism.